EC8491 – NOTES & QP
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EC8491 – SYLLABUS
UNIT I AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation- DSBSC, DSBFC, SSB, VSB — Modulation index, Spectra, Power relations and Bandwidth — AM Generation — Square law and Switching modulator, DSBSC Generation — Balanced and Ring Modulator, SSB Generation — Filter, Phase Shift and Third Methods, VSB Generation — Filter Method, Hilbert Transform, Pre-envelope & complex envelope –comparison of different AM techniques, Superheterodyne Receiver
UNIT II ANGLE MODULATION
Phase and frequency modulation, Narrow Band and Wide band FM — Modulation index, Spectra, Power relations and Transmission Bandwidth — FM modulation –Direct and Indirect methods, FM Demodulation — FM to AM conversion, FM Discriminator — PLL as FM Demodulator.
UNIT III RANDOM PROCESS
Random variables, Random Process, Stationary Processes, Mean, Correlation & Covariance functions, Power Spectral Density, Ergodic Processes, Gaussian Process, Transmission of a Random Process Through a LTI filter.
UNIT IV NOISE CHARACTERIZATION
Noise sources — Noise figure, noise temperature and noise bandwidth — Noise in cascaded systems. Representation of Narrow band noise –In-phase and quadrature, Envelope and Phase — Noise performance analysis in AM & FM systems — Threshold effect, Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis for FM.
UNIT V SAMPLING & QUANTIZATION
Low pass sampling — Aliasing- Signal Reconstruction-Quantization — Uniform & non-uniform quantization — quantization noise — Logarithmic Companding –PAM, PPM, PWM, PCM — TDM, FDM.