GE8291 – NOTES & QP
|SEMESTER QP||CLICK HERE|
GE8291 – SYLLABUS
UNIT I ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY
GE8291 Definition, scope and importance of environment — need for public awareness — concept of an ecosystem — structure and function of an ecosystem — producers, consumers and decomposers — energy flow in the ecosystem — ecological succession — food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids — Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the (a) forest ecosystem (b) grassland ecosystem (c) desert ecosystem (d) aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries) — Introduction to biodiversity definition: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity — biogeographical classification of India — value of biodiversity: consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values — Biodiversity at global, national and local levels — India as a mega-diversity nation — hot-spots of biodiversity — threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts — endangered and endemic species of India — conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and ex-situ conservation of biodiversity. Field study of common plants, insects, birds; Field study of simple ecosystems — pond, river, hill slopes, etc.
UNIT II ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
Definition — causes, effects and control measures of: (a) Air pollution (b) Water pollution (c) Soil pollution (d) Marine pollution (e) Noise pollution (f) Thermal pollution (g) Nuclear hazards — solid waste management: causes, effects and control measures of municipal solid wastes — role of an individual in prevention of pollution — pollution case studies — disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides. Field study of local polluted site — Urban / Rural / Industrial / Agricultural.
UNIT III NATURAL RESOURCES
Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies- timber extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forests and tribal people — Water resources: Use and over- utilization of surface and ground water, floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams-benefits and problems — Mineral resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, case studies — Food resources: World food problems, changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity, case studies — Energy resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and non renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources. case studies — Land resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion and desertification — role of an individual in conservation of natural resources — Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles. Field study of local area to document environmental assets — river / forest / grassland / hill / mountain.
UNIT IV SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
From unsustainable to sustainable development — urban problems related to energy — water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management — resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its problems and concerns, case studies — role of non-governmental organization- environmental ethics: Issues and possible solutions — climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust, case studies. — wasteland reclamation — consumerism and waste products — environment production act — Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) act — Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) act — Wildlife protection act — Forest conservation act — enforcement machinery involved in
environmental legislation- central and state pollution control boards- Public awareness.
UNIT V HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Population growth, variation among nations — population explosion — family welfare programme — environment and human health — human rights — value education — HIV / AIDS — women and child welfare — role of information technology in environment and human health — Case studies.