CE8351 – NOTES & QP
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CE8351 – SYLLABUS
UNIT I FUNDAMENTALS OF CONVENTIONAL SURVEYING AND LEVELLING
Classifications and basic principles of surveying — Equipment and accessories for ranging and chaining — Methods of ranging — Compass — Types of Compass — Basic Principles- Bearing — Types — True Bearing — Magnetic Bearing — Levelling- Principles and theory of Levelling — Datum- — Bench Marks — Temporary and Permanent Adjustments- Methods of Levelling- Booking — Reduction — Sources of errors in Levelling — Curvature and refraction.
UNIT II THEODOLITE AND TACHEOMETRIC SURVEYING
Horizontal and vertical angle measurements — Temporary and permanent adjustments — Heights and distances — Tacheometer — Stadia Constants — Analytic Lens -Tangential and Stadia Tacheometry surveying — Contour — Contouring — Characteristics of contours — Methods of contouring — Tacheometric contouring — Contour gradient — Uses of contour plan and map
UNIT III CONTROL SURVEYING AND ADJUSTMENT
Horizontal and vertical control — Methods — specifications — triangulation- baseline — satellite stations — reduction to centre- trigonometrical levelling — single and reciprocal observations — traversing — Gale?s table. — Errors Sources- precautions and corrections — classification of errors — true and most probable values — weighed observations — method of equal shifts –principle of least squares — normal equation — correlates- level nets- adjustment of simple triangulation networks.
UNIT IV ADVANCED TOPICS IN SURVEYING
Hydrographic Surveying — Tides — MSL — Sounding methods — Three point problem — Strength of fix — astronomical Surveying — Field observations and determination of Azimuth by altitude and hour angle methods –.Astronomical terms and definitions — Motion of sun and stars — Celestial coordinate systems — different time systems — Nautical Almanac — Apparent altitude and corrections — Field observations and determination of time, longitude, latitude and azimuth by altitude and hour angle method
UNIT V MODERN SURVEYING
Total Station : Advantages — Fundamental quantities measured — Parts and accessories — working principle — On board calculations — Field procedure — Errors and Good practices in using Total Station GPS Surveying : Different segments — space, control and user segments — satellite configuration — signal structure — Orbit determination and representation — Anti Spoofing and Selective Availability — Task of control segment — Hand Held and Geodetic receivers — data processing — Traversing and triangulation.